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Familiarity with neurosurgery

Neurosurgery

In relation to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of disorders that affect every part of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and extracranial cerebrovascular system. They mostly affect the patient’s mood and behavior, such as depression, anxiety, personality disorders, and advanced mental illnesses. This group of illnesses are treated by psychiatrists or neuropsychologists. The second category is the diseases that affect the physical function of the nervous system, but cannot be treated with surgery, but drugs must be prescribed for the patients. Such as MS, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and some strokes. These patients are treated by neurologists. But the third group includes patients who can be helped by surgery. Brain tumors, concussions, spinal tumor, spinal cord injuries, lumbar disc, neck, back and peripheral nerve diseases such as pressure on the nerve and nerve cut are part of this group. are. These patients are treated by neurosurgeons.

Types of brain surgery:

1. Craniotomy

In craniotomy, first a cut is made in the scalp and then a hole is made in the skull. In other words, a craniotomy is like flipping the skull because in it, part of the skull bone is temporarily removed. An incision is made in the area of the brain that is to be treated. During open brain surgery, the surgeon can do any of the following: Removing a tumor Clipping an aneurysm Draining blood or secretions from an infection Removing abnormal brain tissue Once surgery is complete, the removed bone is usually held and secured in place with plates, stitches, or wires. The hole created may remain open in some cases such as tumors, infection or swelling of the brain. If the skull remains open, the surgery is called craniectomy.

craniotomy

 

1-1 FRONTAL craniotomy

It is a traditional method for targeting solid frontal brain tumors. It is based on this that removing extra bone is much safer than manipulating the brain. In this method, an incision is made in the scalp behind the hairline and the bone forming the forehead is removed. This bone is returned at the end of the surgery. Removing this bone allows surgeons to access the space behind the eye without manipulating the brain.

craniotomy

 

1-2 SUPRA-ORBITAL craniotomy

It is often called eyebrow craniotomy. A procedure to remove brain tumors in which neurosurgeons access tumors in the front of the brain or around the pituitary gland by making a small incision in the eyebrow. This method is used instead of endonasal endoscopic surgery when the tumor is very large or close to the optic nerve or vital artery.

 

1-3 RETRO-SIGMOID craniotomy

It is often referred to as keyhole craniotomy. A minimally invasive surgical procedure aimed at removing brain tumors. This method allows the removal of skull base tumors through a small incision behind the ear, providing access to the cerebellum and brainstem. Neurosurgeons may use this method to reach specific tumors such as meningiomas and acoustic neuromas.

 

2. Biopsy

This procedure is used to remove a small amount of brain tissue or tumor for examination under a microscope. A biopsy involves making a small incision and hole in the skull.

 

3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgeries

In this type of surgery, the surgeon removes tumors or lesions through the patient’s nose and sinuses. This method allows the surgeon to access parts of the brain without making an incision. The minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal surgery method involves the use of an endoscope. An endoscope is a telescopic device equipped with a light and a camera so that the surgeon can see the environment in which she performs the surgery. Your doctor can use this method to treat tumors of the pituitary gland, tumors at the base of the skull, and tumors that have spread throughout the brain.

 

4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy

Similar to minimally invasive endoscopic surgery, in this method, the surgeon uses endoscopy to remove brain tumors. The surgeon may make a small hole the size of a dime in the skull to access parts of the brain during this surgery.

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